Female Genital Mutilation involves the partial or total removal of external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital for non medical reasons.
The concept of controlling the bodies of women has been a societal and cultural phenomenon. It is based on the fore-going that the advocacy for the equal rights of women which includes the violations and restrictions on the female body whether towards curbing and controlling sexual activity or controlling womens’s health.
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The great debate expands into the culturation of female genital mutilation, abortion and sex work. In Nigeria and other African countries, the subjection of women and girls to these traditional practices is on a high percentage.
Female Genital Mutilation is practiced in more than 28 countries in Africa; it is mostly seen in Nigeria, Egypt, Mali, Eritrea, Sudan, Central African Republic and the northern part of Ghana.
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Nigeria on the other hand has the highest practice of FGM in the world, accounting for about onw-quarter of the estimated 115-130 million circumcised women worldwide. In Nigeria, the South South has the highest prevalence of FGM with 77%9among adult women) followed closely by the South Esat with 68% and South West at 65%, but practiced on a smaller scale in the North.
Female Genital mutilation is practiced in varying degrees in different cultures, and in some, it is a mild aberration of the cultural practice. It is also classified into four types as follows:
Clittoridectomy or Type I is the removal of the prepuce or the hood of the clitoris and all or part of the clitoris.
Sunna or Type II is the removal of the clitoris along with partial or total excision of the labia minora.
Infibulation involves the removal of the clitoris , the labia morora and adjacent medial part of the labia majora and the stitching of the vaginal orifice, leaving an opening the size of a pin head to allow for menstrual flow or urine.
FGM is recognized worldwide as a fundamental violation of the human rights of girls and women.